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Validated Direct Method for Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Foods

URBANA, Ill.—The American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) and the Japan Oil Chemists’ Society (JOCS) released the first validated direct method for glycidyl fatty acid esters in edible oils, AOCS/JOCS Official Method Cd 28-10. The method marks the first analytical collaboration between the two organizations.

AOCS/JOCS Official Method Cd 28-10 determines glycidyl fatty acid esters in edible oils using double solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is applicable for the determination of glycidyl fatty acid esters in commercial vegetable oils and fats.

It was developed through the Expert Panel on Process Contaminants that AOCS established in December 2009. Process contaminants are a group of unrelated compounds formed in the production of finished food products. The panel is initially focusing on the direct measurement of two process contaminants—3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl (glycidol) esters. Glycidyl esters have been found in some oils, causing their temporary removal in certain markets. Of particular interest is the occurrence of variable levels of 3-MCPD esters in refined vegetable oils. Discrepancies among different measurement techniques for 3-MCPD esters are ascribed to the presence of the potential precursor, glycidyl (glycidol) esters. The exact relationship, if any, between these two groups of compounds is unclear.

The method was tested through two pre-studies and a full collaborative study that consisted of nine blind-duplicate samples and included participation from laboratories in Canada, China, France, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, United Kingdom, and the United States. The results were statistically analyzed according to the AOAC-IUPAC Harmonized Protocol (AOCS M 1-92 and M 4-86).


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