October 23, 2007

4 Min Read
Studies in Brief

Pre-treatment of rats with Ginkgo biloba extract increased CYP1A2 metabolic activity and clearance of a therapeutic asthma drug by 30 to 40 percent (Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Jun 21; Epub ahead of print). A review of randomized trials comparing at least 1 g/d of calcium during pregnancy vs. placebo found calcium supplementation can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, possibly by preventing underlying pathology such as high blood pressure (BJOG. 2007 Aug;114(8):933-43). Data from the 2002 Alternative Health/Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey found 5.9 percent of U.S. adults used valerian and 5.2 percent used melatoninboth primarily for insomniawith usage generally not discussed with a health care provider (Sleep. 2007 Jul 1;30(7):881-4). Intake of flavonols, including quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, reduced pancreatic cancer risk by 23 percent (highest to lowest quintile intake) and was associated with a significant inverse trend for pancreatic cancer among current smokers (Am J Epidemiol. ePub 9 Aug 2007;DOI:10.1093/aje/kwm172). Supplementing schizophrenia patients with 1,000 mg bid omega-3 fatty acids, 400 IU bid vitamin E and 1,000 mg/d of vitamin C benefited positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and mitigated the severity of side effects induced by haloperidol (Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. ePub 13 Jul 2007). In vitro study suggests higher levels of dietary flavonoids (quercetin, genistein and kaempferol) could induce abnormalities in the mixed-lineage leukemia gene in hematopoietic progenitor cells, possibly raising the risk of infant leukemia in women who consume flavonoid supplements (Carcinogenesis. 2007;28(8):1703-1709; DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgm102). Fish oil supplementation may delay onset of delivery in low- and middle-intake, but not in high-intake, fish consumers (Eur J Clin Nutr; DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602609). Green tea polyphenols (800 mg/d of epigallocatechin gallate) significantly increased activity and levels of glutathione Stransferases (GST), a major group of detoxification enzymes, in healthy adults (Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2007;16(8):1662-6; DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0830). Genistein supplementation by postmenopausal women impacts several predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including blood sugar levels and inflammatory markers (J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug; 92(8):3068-75). Higher dietary choline consumption did not impact incidence of colon cancer in healthy women (J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(16):1224- 1231). Daidzein-rich isoflavone aglycones are potentially effective in reducing hot flashes in menopausal women (Menopause; ePub 2007 Jul 18). Poor diet quality, as indicated by intake of dihydrophylloquinone, a form of vitamin K present in foods made with partially hydrogenated fat, is linked to lower bone mineral density (BMD) (Am J Clin Nutr; 2007;86(2)504-08). Taurine supplementation may ameliorate diabetic retinopathy by impacting levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the retina (Neurochem Res. 2007 Aug 31; Epub ahead of print). Results from a two-year prospective cohort study in almost 8,000 adults found longchain omega-3 fatty acid intake may help reduce the risk of depression and anxiety (Eur J Nutr. 2007;46(6)337-46). Large doses of vitamin D do not appear to impact disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):645-51). Administration of 20, 30 or 50 mg Pueraria mirifica to postmenopausal women helped alleviate vaginal dryness symptoms, improved signs of vaginal atrophy and restored the atrophic vaginal epithelium (Menopause. 2007;14(5):919-24). Reduced vitamin A intake by patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may increase disease progression (Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;(86)3:661-71). A study in more than 137,000 men in Europe found no association between plasma carotenoid concentrations and prostate cancer risk; there was an inverse association of lycopene and total carotenoids with risk of advanced disease (Am J Clin Nutr.2007;86(3):672-81). Consumption of beer, wine and tea might alter intestinal uptake of folic acid (Eur J Nutr. 2007;46(6):329-36). Increasing levels of long-chain omega-6 fatty acids in breast milk reduced the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a study of Tanzanian women and children (Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):682-89). Young men with lower serum levels of vitamin D had more sick days from respiratory infection than control subjects; smoking also was associated with lower vitamin D levels (Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):714-17). Soy isoflavone supplementation might have a significant benefit on fasting glucose in postmenopausal women, but it appeared to have no significant benefit to serum lipid levels (Menopause. 2007;14(5):905-912). In a review of 2,969 women born in Finland, those who had pre-eclampsia in their first pregnancy were significantly more likely to not have received vitamin D supplementation during the first year of their own life (Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61:1136- 39). Consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction (MI) among adults with a functional GSTT1*1 allele, suggesting compounds that are detoxified by the glutathione S-transferases may contribute to MI risk (Am J Clin Nutr.2007;86(3):752-58). Development of subarachnoid hemorrhage is inversely related to antioxidant intake (Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61:1140-42). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) genotypes modify the relation between dietary fatty acid intake and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations (Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):768-74).

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