Cardiovascular Health References

December 6, 2004

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Cardiovascular Health References

Jan. 3, 2005 - Natural Products Industry INSIDER
"Cardiovascular Health" References

1. Hu FB, Willett WC. "Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heartdisease." JAMA. 288, 20:2569-78, 2002.

2. Kerver JM et al. "Dietary patterns associated with risk factors forcardiovascular disease in healthy U.S. adults." Am J Clin Nutr. 78,6:1103-10, 2003.

3. Jenkins DJ et al. "Effects of a dietary portfolio ofcholesterol-lowering foods vs. lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactiveprotein." JAMA. 290, 4:502-10, 2003.

4. Jenkins DJ et al. "The effect of combining plant sterols, soyprotein, viscous fibers and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia." Metabolism.52, 11:1478-83.

5. Kok FJ, Kromhout D. "Atherosclerosis--epidemiological studies on thehealth effects of a Mediterranean diet." Eur J Nutr. 43 Suppl.1:I/2-5, 2004.

6. Barzi F et al. "Mediterranean diet and all-causes mortality aftermyocardial infarction: results from the GISSI-Prevenzione trial." Eur JClin Nutr. 57, 4:604-11, 2003.

7. Strahan TM. "Nuts for cardiovascular protection." Asia Pac JClin Nutr. 13 Suppl.:S33, 2004.

8. Maguire LS et al. "Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene andphytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamianut." Int J Food Sci Nutr. 55, 3:171-8, 2004.

9. Alper CM, Mattes RD. "Peanut consumption improves indices ofcardiovascular disease risk in healthy adults." J Am Coll Nutr. 22,2:133-41, 2003.

10. Ros E et al. "A walnut diet improves endothelial function inhypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized crossover trial." Circulation.6, 109, 13:1609-14, 2004.

11. Bazzano LA et al. "Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of coronaryheart disease in U.S. men and women: the National Health and NutritionExamination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study." Arch Intern Med.163, 16:1897-904, 2003.

12. Mozaffarian D et al. "Cereal, fruit and vegetable fiber intake andthe risk of cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals." JAMA.289, 13:1659-66, 2003.

13. Pereira MA et al. "Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease:a pooled analysis of cohort studies." Arch Intern Med. 164, 4:370-6,2004.

14. Saltzman E et al. "An oat-containing hypocaloric diet reducessystolic blood pressure and improves lipid profile beyond effects of weight lossin men and women." J Nutr. 131, 5:1465-70, 2001.

15. Pins JJ et al. "Do whole-grain oat cereals reduce the need forantihypertensive medications and improve blood pressure control?" J FamPract. 51, 4:353-9, 2002.

16. He J et al. "Effect of dietary fiber intake on blood pressure: arandomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial." J Hypertens.22, 1:73-80, 2004.

17. Berg A et al. "Effect of an oat bran enriched diet on theatherogenic lipid profile in patients with an increased coronary heart diseaserisk. A controlled randomized lifestyle intervention study." Ann NutrMetab. 47, 6:306-11, 2003.

18. Davy BM et al. "High-fiber oat cereal compared with wheat cerealconsumption favorably alters LDL-cholesterol subclass and particle numbers inmiddle-aged and older men." Am J Clin Nutr. 76, 2:351-8, 2002.

19. Hasler CM. "The cardiovascular effects of soy products." JCardiovasc Nurs. 16, 4:50-63, 2002.

20. Merritt JC. "Metabolic syndrome: soybean foods and serumlipids." J Natl Med Assoc. 96, 8:1032-41, 2004.

21. Zhang X et al. "Soy food consumption is associated with lower riskof coronary heart disease in Chinese women." J Nutr. 133, 9:2874-8,2003.

22. Rosell MS et al. "Soy intake and blood cholesterol concentrations: across-sectional study of 1,033 pre- and postmenopausal women in the Oxford armof the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition." AmJ Clin Nutr. 80, 5:1391-6, 2004.

23. Meyer BJ et al. "Limited lipid-lowering effects of regularconsumption of whole soybean foods." Ann Nutr Metab. 48, 2:67-78,2004.

24. Sagara M et al. "Effects of dietary intake of soy protein andisoflavones on cardiovascular disease risk factors in high risk, middle-aged menin Scotland." J Am Coll Nutr. 23, 1:85-91, 2004.

25. Rivas M et al. "Soy milk lowers blood pressure in men and women withmild to moderate essential hypertension." J Nutr. 132, 7:1900-2,2002.

26. Teixeira SR et al. "Isolated soy protein consumption reduces urinaryalbumin excretion and improves the serum lipid profile in men with Type IIdiabetes mellitus and nephropathy." J Nutr. 134, 8:1874-80, 2004.

27. Tonstad S, Smerud K, Hoie L. "A comparison of the effects of 2 dosesof soy protein or casein on serum lipids, serum lipoproteins and plasma totalhomocysteine in hypercholesterolemic subjects." Am J Clin Nutr. 76,1:78-84, 2002.

28. Lichtenstein AH et al. "Lipoprotein response to diets high in soy oranimal protein with an without isoflavones in moderately hypercholesterolemicsubjects." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 22, 11:1852-8, 2002.

29. Wang Y et al. "Soy protein reduces triglyceride levels andtriglyceride fatty acid fractional synthesis rate in hypercholesterolemicsubjects." Atherosclerosis. 173, 2:269-75, 2004.

30. Jenkins DJ et al. "Effects of high- and low-isoflavone soyfoods onblood lipids, oxidized LDL, homocysteine and blood pressure in hyperlipidemicmen and women." Am J Clin Nutr. 76, 2:365-72, 2002.

31. Zhuo XG, Melby MK, Watanabe S. "Soy isoflavone intake lowers serumLDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled trials inhumans." J Nutr. 134, 9:2395-400, 2004.

32. de Kleijn MJ et al. "Dietary intake of phytoestrogens is associatedwith a favorable metabolic cardiovascular risk profile in postmenopausal U.S.women: the Framingham study." J Nutr. 132, 2:276-82, 2002.

33. van der Schouw YT et al. "Higher usual dietary intake ofphytoestrogens is associated with lower aortic stiffness in postmenopausalwomen." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 22, 8:1316-22, 2002.

34. Mortensen A et al. "Effect of a soy supplement on spontaneousatherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knock out (LDLR -/--)mice." Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 13 Suppl.:S102, 2004.

35. Yin XZ et al. "[Anti-atherosclerotic effect of soybean isoflavonesand soyasaponins in diabetic rats.]" Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi.38, 1:26-8, 2004.

36. Yousef MI et al. "Antioxidant activities and lipid lowering effectsof isoflavone in male rabbits." Food Chem Tox. 42, 9:1497-503,

37. Schult TM et al. "Effect of isoflavones on lipids and bone turnovermarkers in menopausal women." Maturitas. 48, 3:209-18, 2004.

38. Atkinson C et al. "Modest protective effects of isoflavones from ared clover-derived dietary supplement on cardiovascular disease risk factors inperimenopausal women, and evidence of an interaction with ApoE genotype in 49-65year old women." J Nutr. 134, 7:1759-64, 2004.

39. Nestel P et al. "A biochanin-enriched isoflavone from red cloverlowers LDL cholesterol in men." Eur J Clin Nutr. 58, 3:403-8, 2004.

40. Bloedon LT, Szapary PO. "Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk." NutrRev. 62, 1:18-27, 2004.

41. Lucas EA et al. "Flaxseed reduces plasma cholesterol andatherosclerotic lesion formation in ovariectomized Golden Syrian hamsters."Atherosclerosis. 173, 2:223-9, 2004.

42. Lucas EA et al. "Flaxseed improves lipid profile without alteringbiomarkers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women." J ClinEndocrinol Metab. 87, 4:1527-32, 2002.

43. Ipotova OM et al. "[Biological activity of linseed oil as the sourceof omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid."] Biomed Khim. 50, 1:25-43, 2004.

44. Wiesenfeld PW et al. "Flaxseed increased alpha-linolenic andeicosapentaenoic acid and decreased arachidonic acid in serum and tissues of ratdams and offspring." Food Chem Tox. 41, 6:841-55, 2003.

45. Zhao G et al. "Dietary {alpha}-linolenic acid reduces inflammatoryand lipid cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic men andwomen." J Nutr. 134, 11:2991-7, 2004.

46. Bemelmans WJ et al. "Increased alpha-linolenic acid intake lowersC-reactive protein, but has no effect on markers of atherosclerosis." EurJ Clin Nutr. 58, 7:1083-9, 2004.

47. Davis BC, Kris-Etherton PM. "Achieving optimal essential fatty acidstatus in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications." AmJ Clin Nutr. 78, 3 Suppl.:640S-646S, 2003.

48. Finnegan YE et al. "Plant- and marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturatedfatty acids have differential effects on fasting and postprandial blood lipidconcentrations and on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification inmoderately hyperlipidemic subjects." Am J Clin Nutr. 77, 4:783-95,2003.

49. Wijendran V, Hayes KC. "Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid balance andcardiovascular health." Annu Rev Nutr. 24:597-615, 2004.

50. Harris WS, von Schacky C. "The Omega-3 Index: a new risk factor fordeath from coronary heart disease?" Prev Med. 39:212-20, 2004.

51. Erkkila AT et al. "n-3 fatty acids and 5-y risks of death andcardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease." AmJ Clin Nutr. 78, 1:65-71, 2003.

52. Mozaffarian D et al. "Fish intake and risk of incident atrialfibrillation." Circulation. 110:368-73, 2004.

53. Erkkila AT et al. "Fish intake is associated with a reducedprogression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women withcoronary artery disease." Am J Clin Nutr. 80:626-32, 2004.

54. Iso H. "Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke inwomen." JAMA. 285, 3:304-12, 2001.

55. Din JN, Newby DE, Flapan AD. "Omega 3 fatty acids and cardiovasculardisease--fishing for a natural treatment." BMJ. 328:30-5, 2004.

56. [No authors listed.] "Dietary supplementation with n-3polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: resultsof the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio dellaSopravvivenza nell-Infarto miocardio." Lancet. 354, 9177:447-55,1999.

57. Dyerberg J et al. "Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acidson cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary interventionstudy." Eur J Clin Nutr. 58, 7:1062-70, 2004.

58. Angerer P et al. "Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3fatty acids on progression of atherosclerosis in carotid arteries." CardiovascRes. 54, 1:183-90, 2002.

59. Thies F et al. "Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids withstability of atherosclerotic plaques: a randomized controlled trial." Lancet.361, 9356:477-85, 2003.

60. Geelen A et al. "Intake of n-3 fatty acids from fish does not lowerserum concentrations of C-reactive protein in healthy subjects." Eur JClin Nutr. 58, 10:1440-2, 2004.

61. Ciubotaru I, Lee YS, Wander RC. "Dietary fish oil decreasesC-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and triacylglycerol to HDL-cholesterol ratioin postmenopausal women on HRT." J Nutr Biochem. 14, 9:513-21,

62. Vanschoonbeek K et al. "Variable hypocoagulant effect of fish oilintake in humans: modulation of fibrinogen level and thrombin generation." ArteriosclerThromb Vasc Biol. 24, 9:1734-40, 2004.

63. Woodman RJ et al. "Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid anddocosahexaenoic acid on platelet, fibrinolytic and vascular function inhypertensive Type II diabetic patients." Atherosclerosis. 166,1:85-93, 2003.

64. Khan F et al. "The effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation onendothelial function and vascular tone in healthy subjects." CardiovascRes. 59, 4:955-62, 2003.

65. Alarcon de la Lastra C et al. "Mediterranean diet and health:biological importance of olive oil." Curr Pharm Des. 7, 10:933-50,2001.

66. Psaltopoulou T et al. "Olive oil, the Mediterranean diet andarterial blood pressure: the Greek European Prospective Investigation intoCancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study." Am J Clin Nutr. 80, 4:1012-8,2004.

67. Perona JS et al. "Virgin olive oil reduces blood pressure inhypertensive elderly subjects." Clin Nutr. 23, 5:1113-21, 2004.

68. Mayer B et al. "Effects of an onion-live oil maceration productcontaining essential ingredients of the Mediterranean diet on blood pressure andblood fluidity." Arzneimittelforschung. 51, 2:104-11, 2001.

69. Massaro M, De Caterina R. "Vasculoprotective effects of oleic acid:epidemiological background and direct vascular antiatherogenic properties."Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 12, 1:42-51, 2002.

70. Herrera MD et al. "Effects of dietary oleic-rich oils (virgin oliveand high-oleic-acid sunflower) on vascular reactivity in Wiestar-Kyoto andspontaneously hypertensive rats." Br J Nutr. 86, 3:349-57, 2001.

71. Visioli F et al. "Hydroxytyrosol, as a component of olive mill wastewater, is dose-dependently absorbed and increases the antioxidant capacity ofrat plasma." Free Rad Res. 34, 3:301-5, 2001.

72. Togna GI et al. "Olive oil isochromans inhibit human plateletreactivity." J Nutr. 133, 8:2532-6, 2003.

73. Carluccio MA et al. "Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenolsinhibit endothelial activation: antiatherogenic properties of Mediterranean dietphytochemicals." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 23, 4:622-9, 2003.

74. Shafiee M et al. "Grape and grape seed extract capacities atprotecting LDL against oxidation generated by Cu2+, AAPH or SIN-1 and atdecreasing superoxide THP-1 cell production. A comparison to other extracts orcompounds." Free Rad Res. 37, 5:573-84, 2003.

75. van de Wiel A. "[Nutrition and health--favorable effect of wine andwine flavonoids on cardiovascular disease.]" Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd.146, 51:2466-9, 2002.

76. Ventura P et al. "Red wine consumption prevents vascular oxidativestress induced by a high-fat meal in healthy volunteers." Int J VitamNutr Res. 74, 2:137-43, 2004.

77. Waddington E, Puddey IB, Croft KD. "Red wine polyphenolic compoundsinhibit atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice independently ofeffects on lipid peroxidation." Am J Clin Nutr. 79, 1:54-61, 2004.

78. Stocker R, O'Halloran RA. "Dealcoholized red wine decreasesatherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E gene-deficient mice independently ofinhibition of lipid peroxidation in the artery wall." Am J Clin Nutr.79, 1:123-30, 2004.

79. Bagchi D et al. "Molecule mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novelgrape seed proanthocyanidin extract." Mutat Res. 523-524:87-97,2003.

80. Auger C et al. "Phenolics from commercialized grape extracts preventearly atherosclerotic lesions in hamsters by mechanisms other than antioxidanteffect." J Agric Food Chem. 52, 16:5297-302, 2004.

81. Natella F et al. "Grape seed proanthocyanidins prevent plasmapostprandial oxidative stress in humans." J Agric Food Chem. 50,26:7720-5, 2002.

82. Dell'Agli M, Busciala A, Bosisio E. "Vascular effects of winepolyphenols." Cardiovasc Res. 63, 4:593-602, 2004.

83. Whelan AP et al. "Effects of white and red wine on endothelialfunction in subjects with coronary artery disease." IMJ. 34,5:224-8, 2004.

84. Tyson DA et al. "Acute effects of grape seed extract andniacin-bound chromium on cardiovascular parameters of normotensive andhypertensive rats." Res Comm Pharmacol Toxicol. 5, 1-2:91-106, 2000.

85. Firenzuoli F et al. "[Flavonoids: risks or therapeuticopportunities?"] Recenti Prog Med. 95, 7-8:345-51, 2004.

86. Maron DJ. "Flavonoids for reduction of atherosclerotic risk." CurrAtheroscler Rep. 6, 1:73-8, 2004.

87. Siddiqui IA et al. "Antioxidants of the beverage tea in promotion ofhuman health." Antioxid Redox Signal. 6, 3:571-82, 2004.

89. Sano J et al. "Effects of green tea intake on the development ofcoronary artery disease." Circ J. 68, 7:665-70, 2004.

90. Yang YC et al. "The protective effect of habitual tea consumption onhypertension." Arch Intern Med. 164, 14:1534-40, 2004.

91. Frei B, Higdon JV. "Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo:evidence from animal studies." J Nutr. 133, 10:3275S-84S, 2003.

92. Ouyang P et al. ["Green tea polyphenols inhibit low-densitylipoprotein-induced proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells."] DiYi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 24, 9:975-9, 2004.

93. Ludwig A et al. "The tea flavonoid epigallocatechin-3-gallatereduces cytokine-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelialcells." Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 316, 3:659-65, 2004.

94. Chyu KY et al. "Differential effects of green tea-derived catechinon developing versus established atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-nullmice." Circulation. 109, 20:2448-53, 2004.

95. Vinson JA, Teufel K, Wu N. "Green and black teas inhibitatherosclerosis by lipid, antioxidant and fibrinolytic mechanisms." JAgric Food Chem. 52, 11:3661-5, 2004.

96. Engler MB, Engler MM. "The vasculoprotective effects offlavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate." Nutr Res. 24, 9:695-706, 2004.

97. Innes AJ et al. "Dark chocolate inhibits platelet aggregation inhealthy volunteers." Platelets. 14, 5:325-7, 2003.

98. Mathur S et al. "Cocoa products decrease low density lipoproteinoxidative susceptibility but do not affect biomarkers of inflammation inhumans." J Nutr. 132, 12:3663-7, 2002.

99. Engler MB et al. "Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelialfunction and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthyadults." J Am Coll Nutr. 23, 3:197-204, 2004.

100. Silalahi J. "Anticancer and health protective properties of citrusfruit components." Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 11, 1:79-84, 2002.

101. Vinson JA et al. "Polyphenol antioxidants in citrus juices: invitro and in vivo studies relevant to heart disease." Adv Exp Med Biol.505:113-22, 2002.

102. Jeon SM et al. "Comparison of antioxidant effects of naringin andprobucol in cholesterol-fed rabbits." Clin Chim Acta. 317,1-2:181-90, 2002.

103. Jeon SM et al. "Antioxidative activity of naringin and lovastatinin high cholesterol-fed rabbits." Life Sci. 69, 24:2855-66, 2001.

104. Lee CH et al. "Anti-atherogenic effect of citrus flavonoids,naringin and naringenin, associated with hepatic ACAT and aortic VCAM-1 andMCP-1 in high cholesterol-fed rabbits." Biochem Biophys Res Comm.284, 3:681-8, 2001.

105. Ohtsuki K et al. "Effects of long-term administration of hesperidinand glucosyl hesperidin to spontaneously hypertensive rats." J Nutr SciVitaminol (Tokyo). 48, 5:420-2, 2002.

106. Whitman SC et al. "Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid isolated fromtangerines, selective inhibits class A scavenger receptor-mediated metabolism ofacetylated LDL by mouse macrophages." Atherosclerosis. [in press2005]

107. Kurowska EM et al. "Modulation of HepG2 cell net apolipoprotein Bsecretion by the citrus polymethoxyflavone, tangeretin." Lipids. 39,2:143-51, 2004.

108. Kurowska EM, Manthey JA. "Hypolipidemic effects and absorption ofcitrus polymethoxylated flavones in hamsters with diet-inducedhypercholesterolemia." J Agric Food Chem. 52, 10:2879-86, 2004.

109. Aviram M et al. "Pomegranate juice flavonoids inhibit low-densitylipoprotein oxidation and cardiovascular diseases: studies in atheroscleroticmice and in humans." Drugs Exp Clin Res. 28, 2-3:49-62, 2002.

110. Aviram M et al. "Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidativestress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies inhumans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice." Am JClin Nutr. 71, 5:1062-76, 2000.

111. Noda Y et al. "Antioxidant activities of pomegranate fruit extractand its anthocyanidins: delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin." J AgricFood Chem. 50, 1:166-71, 2002.

112. Cerda B et al. "Evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism inthe rat of punicalagin, an antioxidant polyphenol from pomegranate juice." EurJ Nutr. 42, 1:18-28, 2003.

113. Esmaillzadeh A et al. "Concentrated pomegranate juice improveslipid profiles in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia." J Med Food.7, 3:305-8, 2004.

114. Aviram M et al. "Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years bypatients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-mediathickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation." Clin Nutr. 23,3:423-33, 2004.

115. Rohdewald P. "A review of the French maritime pine bark extract(Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology." IntJ Clin Pharmacol Ther. 40, 4:158-68, 2002.

116. Devaraj S et al. "Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich inpolyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasmalipoprotein profile." Lipids. 37, 10:931-4, 2002.

117. Watson RR. "Pycnogenol and cardiovascular health." EvidenceBased Integr Med. 1, 1:27-32, 2003.

118. Liu X et al. "Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract,improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients." Life Sci.74:855-62, 2004.

119. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD. "The role of carotenoids in theprevention of human pathologies." Biomed Pharmacother. 58, 2:100-10,2004.

120. Hak AE et al. "Prospective study of plasma carotenoids andtocopherols in relation to risk of ischemic stroke." Stroke. 35,7:1584-8, 2004.

121. Dwyer JH et al. "Progression of carotid intima-media thickness andplasma antioxidants: the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study." ArteriosclerThromb Vasc Biol. 24, 2:313-9, 2004.

122. Rao AV. "Lycopene, tomatoes and the prevention of coronary heartdisease." Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 227, 10:908-13, 2002.

123. Willcox JK, Catignani GL, Lazarus S. "Tomatoes and cardiovascularhealth." Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 43, 1:1-18, 2003.

124. Maruyama C et al. "Effects of tomato juice consumption on plasmaand lipoprotein carotenoid concentrations and the susceptibility of low densitylipoprotein to oxidative modification." J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo).47, 3:213-21, 2001.

125. Sesso HD et al. "Dietary lycopene, tomato-based food products andcardiovascular disease in women." J Nutr. 133, 7:2336-41, 2003.

126. Rissanen TH et al. "Low serum lycopene concentration is associatedwith an excess incidence of acute coronary events and stroke: the KuopioIschaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study." Br J Nutr. 85, 6:749-54,2001.

127. Rissanen TH et al. "Serum lycopene concentrations and carotidatherosclerosis: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study." AmJ Clin Nutr. 77, 1:133-8, 2003.

128. Guerin M, Huntley ME, Olaizola M. "Haematococcus astaxanthin:applications for human health and nutrition." Trends Biotechnol. 21,5:210-6, 2003.

129. Iwamoto T et al. "Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidationby astaxanthin." J Atheroscler Thromb. 7, 4:216-22, 2000.

130. Gross GJ, Lockwood SF. "Cardioprotection and myocardial salvage bya disodium disuccinate astaxanthin derivative (Cardax)." Life Sci.75:215-24, 2004.

131. Asplund K. "Antioxidant vitamins in the prevention ofcardiovascular disease: a systematic review." J Intern Med. 251,5:372-92, 2002.

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133. Carpenter KL et al. "Oral alpha-tocopherol supplementation inhibitslipid oxidation in established human atherosclerotic lesions." Free RadRes. 37, 11:1235-44, 2003.

134. Hodis HN et al. "Alpha-tocopherol supplementation in healthyindividuals reduces low-density lipoprotein oxidation but not atherosclerosis:the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS)." Circulation.106, 12:1453-9, 2002.

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137. Raederstorff D et al. "Effect of either gamma-tocotrienol or atocotrienol mixture on the plasma lipid profile in hamsters." Ann NutrMetab. 46, 1:17-23, 2002.

138. Sundram K, Sambanthamurthi R, Tan YA. "Palm fruit chemistry andnutrition." Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 12, 3:355-62, 2003.

139. Tiahou G et al. "Lack of oxidative stress in a selenium deficientarea in Ivory Coast--potential nutritional antioxidant role of crude palmoil." Eur J Nutr. Oct. 20, 2004. [epub ahead of print.]

140. Ogru E et al. "Vitamin E phosphate: an endogenous form of vitaminE." Presented at Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress, Ioannina, Greece, June26-29, 2003.

141. Munteanu A et al. "Modulation of cell proliferation and geneexpression by alpha-tocopheryl phosphates: relevance to atherosclerosis andinflammation." Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 318:311-6, 2004.

142. Rezk BM et al. "The extraordinary antioxidant activity of vitamin Ephosphate." Biochim Biophys Acta. 1683:16-21, 2004.

143. Nagyova A et al. "Lipid peroxidation in men after dietarysupplementation with a mixture of antioxidant nutrients." Bratisl LekListy. 105, 7-8:277-80, 2004.

144. Salonen RM et al. "Six-year effect of combined vitamin C and Esupplementation on atherosclerotic progression: the Antioxidant Supplementationin Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study." Circulation. 107,7:947-53, 2003.

145. Erbs S et al. "Improvement of peripheral endothelial dysfunction byacute vitamin C application: different effects in patients with coronary arterydisease, ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy." Am Heart J. 146,2:280-5, 2003.

146. Kurl S et al. "Plasma vitamin C modifies the association betweenhypertension and risk of stroke." Stroke. 33, 6:1568-73, 2002.

147. Kim MK et al. "Lack of long-term effect of vitamin Csupplementation on blood pressure." Hypertension. 40, 6:797-803,2002.

148. Eskurza I et al. "Ascorbic acid does not affect large elasticartery compliance or central blood pressure in young and older men." AmJ Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 286, 4:H1528-34, 2004.

149. Wollin SD, Jones PJ. "Alpha-lipoic acid and cardiovasculardisease." J Nutr. 133, 11:3327-30, 2003.

150. Midaoui AE et al. "Lipoic acid prevents hypertension, hyperglycemiaand the increase in heart mitochondrial superoxide production." Am JHypertens. 16, 3:173-9, 2003.

151. Vasdev S et al. "Salt-induced hypertension in WKY rats: preventionby alpha-lipoic acid supplementation." Mol Cell Biochem. 254,1-2:319-26, 2003.

152. Thirunavukkarasu V, Anitha Nandhini AT, Anuradha CV. "Effect ofalpha-lipoic acid on lipid profile in rats fed a high-fructose diet." ExpDiabesity Res. 5, 3:195-200, 2004.

153. Garcia-Estrada J et al. "An alpha-lipoic acid-vitamin E mixturereduces post-embolism lipid peroxidation, cerebral infarction and neurologicaldeficit in rats." Neurosci Res. 47, 2:219-24, 2003.

154. Tran MT et al. "Role of coenzyme Q10 in chronic heart failure,angina and hypertension." Pharmacotherapy. 21, 7:797-806, 2001.

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158. Singh RB et al. "Effect of coenzyme Q10 on experimentalatherosclerosis and chemical composition and quality of atheroma inrabbits." Atherosclerosis. 148, 2:275-82, 2000.

159. Thomas SR et al. "Dietary cosupplementation with vitamin E andcoenzyme Q(10) inhibits atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E gene knockoutmice." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 21, 4:585-93, 2001.

160. Singh RB et al. "Effect of coenzyme Q10 on risk of atherosclerosisin patients with recent myocardial infarction." Mol Cell Biochem.246, 1-2:75-82, 2003.

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